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Audit and consulting

This section provides content of interest to professionals who understand and audit legal and regulatory compliance in cybersecurity, risk management, internal policies management and compliance, or are responsible for internal training in cybersecurity.

Command and control post

C&C: models, function and measures

Posted on 08/18/2022, by Ricardo del Rio García
This post explains the infrastructure of command and control (C&C), describing what an attack consists of, related terminology, actions undertaken by attackers, models, general function and preventative measures, detection and response to this threat.

Differences between OT DMZ and IT DMZ

Posted on 08/04/2022, by INCIBE
Demilitarized zones, also known as DMZs (demilitarized zones), are used for the secure exchange of information between computers on a network that we want to protect and an external network that needs to access those computers. DMZs are widely used in the IT sector and also in the OT sector, but the equipment and services they host are not exactly the same.

Machine learning in ICS

Posted on 06/23/2022, by INCIBE
In recent years, the concept of machine learning has gained more prominence, mainly driven by advances in parallel computing capacity. More and more developments, applications and programs are using these algorithms to provide systems with greater security, intelligence and independence. However, it’s rarely used in industrial environments, although some recent tests and developments prove its effectiveness, including in the scope of detection and prediction of cyber attacks.
Threat analysis image

Threat analysis study: Grandoreiro

Posted on 06/02/2022, by INCIBE
Grandoreiro, also known as Delephant, is a banking trojan from South America, which has spread its operations to other regions, especially Europe, including Spain and Portugal. According to ESET researchers, it has been active since 2015, affecting countries in Latin America, mainly Brazil, where it was developed.
Standard IEC 62443-4-2, the need to secure ISC components

IEC 62443-4-2, the need to secure components

Posted on 05/12/2022, by INCIBE
The security of control systems can be threatened from different aspects, with the end device being the most important attack vector. With this in mind, the IEC, within the 62443 standard, wanted to emphasise devices by preparing a document exclusively concerning their security: IEC62443-4-2. This document contains different technical requirements to improve the security of the types of assets that can be found in a control system.
FAT and SAT tests on ICS

FAT and SAT tests on industrial devices

Posted on 04/07/2022, by INCIBE
The continuity of the production process in businesses that require industrial automation depends more and more on the proper functioning, safety and reliability of the system of that composes it. Therefore, conducting tests of acceptance of its operation prior to its commissioning, is vital to ensure that the systems acquired meet the requirements set out in the contract between the company and the manufacturer.
Cybersecurity measures from a global perspective

Cybersecurity measures from a global perspective

Posted on 03/11/2022, by INCIBE
An adequate level of cybersecurity and cyberresilience is essential to keep assets safe from possible cyberattacks. This is why INCIBE-CERT has listed a set of measures and good practices that are valid for any need that affects cybersecurity.